Campus protests usually are not normally geared toward a single individual. However final week on the College of Pennsylvania, professors staged a rally focusing on Marc Rowan, the New York private-equity billionaire.

A Penn alumnus and a serious benefactor of the college, Mr. Rowan deployed his formidable sources in a relentless marketing campaign in opposition to Penn’s president, M. Elizabeth Magill, resulting in her resignation in December.

However it was what occurred subsequent that spurred the protest. Mr. Rowan despatched a four-page e-mail to school trustees titled “Moving Forward,” which many professors interpreted as a blueprint for a extra conservative campus.

Amy C. Offner, a historical past professor who led the protest, referred to as the doc a proposed “hostile takeover of the core academic functions of the university.”

The protest of about 100 individuals was an indication that the discord on campus would most likely proceed regardless of Ms. Magill’s resignation, which many members of Penn’s group hoped would quell the outrage over testimony she gave at a congressional listening to that appeared to equivocate over whether or not college students could be disciplined in the event that they referred to as for the genocide of the Jews.

As an alternative, Penn, now working underneath an interim president, Dr. J. Larry Jameson, is dealing with a lineup of alumni, donors and college students who argue that universities have been taken over by a liberal orthodoxy that tolerates and even promotes antisemitism.

Penn is now being assailed from many sides. It’s the defendant in a lawsuit filed by Jewish college students and partly financed by unnamed donors, and the topic of a congressional investigation with subpoena energy. State Republican lawmakers have threatened to withhold $31 million for its veterinary drugs program, the one state appropriation the personal college receives.

Two alumni, Mr. Rowan and Ronald S. Lauder, the cosmetics inheritor, had been notable among the many sponsors of a fund-raiser for the re-election of Consultant Virginia Foxx, Republican of North Carolina, whose Home committee is investigating Penn and different universities over claims of antisemitism.

Mr. Rowan and Mr. Lauder didn’t attend the fund-raiser, however the occasion’s organizer — Andrew Sabin, a New Yorker who made a fortune in metallic recycling — stated that the sponsors shared an opposition to antisemitism and are hoping to stress Congress to take away federal funding and the tax-exempt standing of some universities.

A separate investigation by the Home Methods and Means Committee has questioned whether or not campus antisemitism jeopardizes the nonprofit standing of Penn in addition to Cornell, Harvard, and M.I.T.

“We’ve got a very, very aggressive path forward,” stated Mr. Sabin, who didn’t attend Penn.

Some professors on the college say the assault on Penn is a part of a conservative effort, begun by governors like Ron DeSantis of Florida, to overtake American increased schooling — an effort that’s now spreading to dozens of universities, together with Penn, Harvard and Columbia, which at the moment are underneath investigation by the federal authorities over stories of antisemitism.

“This is an anti-democratic attack unfolding, not just at Penn, but all across the country, including at public universities in Florida, in Texas, Ohio and beyond,” stated Dr. Offner, the president of the college’s chapter of the American Affiliation of College Professors, an expert college group.

Penn, she stated, had turn into “ground zero of a coordinated national assault on higher education, an assault organized by billionaires, lobbying organizations, and politicians who would like to control what can be studied and taught in the United States.”

On Wednesday — two days after the fund-raiser, which raised an estimated $60,000 for her marketing campaign — Ms. Foxx submitted a 14-page letter to the college, demanding paperwork that will replicate the considerations of some Penn donors that the variety of Jewish college students at Penn has declined because the college has admitted extra Asian, Black and Latino college students.

The calls for made by Ms. Foxx cited figures from the Jewish group Hillel Worldwide suggesting that Penn’s Jewish undergraduate inhabitants had fallen to about 1,600, or 16.4 p.c of the scholar physique, in 2023, in contrast with about 2,500 college students, or 25 p.c, in 2013. Jews make up a bit greater than 2 p.c of the U.S. inhabitants.

Mr. Rowan’s proposal, which was printed in its entirety by The Philadelphia Inquirer, was framed as a collection of questions in regards to the college’s path. It requested whether or not some tutorial applications needs to be eradicated and whether or not advantage and tutorial excellence needs to be the paramount consideration in hiring and admissions, which many interpreted as a name to remove variety concerns.

The doc drew a direct and powerful pushback from college members, with greater than 1,200 of them signing a letter despatched to trustees on Jan. 16. “We oppose all attempts by trustees, donors, and other external actors to interfere with our academic policies and to undermine academic freedom,” the letter stated.

The college, nonetheless, is just not of 1 thoughts. Michael J. Kahana, a professor of psychology, responded immediately in an e-mail to the school senate.

“Your letter specifically calls out Marc Rowan’s questions, which I have studied and found to be reasonable and helpful,” wrote Dr. Kahana, who shared his e-mail with The New York Occasions. Dr. Kahana lately organized a trip to Israeli universities by Penn professors, as a present of solidarity with tutorial colleagues in Israel.

Mr. Rowan, who serves as chair of an advisory panel at Wharton, Penn’s prestigious enterprise faculty, prompt by means of a spokesman that the school had misinterpreted his intent.

“Marc is saying these are the questions, he’s not trying to provide answers,” stated Steven Lipin, the spokesman. “In no way is it what Marc wants. Ultimately, it is what the trustees and faculty want.”

At the rally final week, simply after the beginning of Penn’s spring semester, professors and others stood exterior in freezing temperatures for almost two hours, and stated they had been searching for assurance from Dr. Jameson, Penn’s interim president, that Mr. Rowan’s concepts wouldn’t be embraced. A couple of dozen college audio system, in addition to a number of college students, stated they had been frightened that donors had been on a campaign to assault Penn’s traditions of variety, tutorial freedom and free speech.

Thus far, the college administration hasn’t issued what the professors view as a forceful repudiation of Mr. Rowan. However in a current Q. and A. doc posted to the college’s web site, Dr. Jameson, an endocrinologist who served as dean of Penn’s medical faculty, restated the concept that the trustees’ function was to delegate administration to tutorial leaders and the school.

Neither Dr. Jameson nor the college’s new board chair, Ramanan Raghavendran, an investor, was out there for remark for this text.

Mr. Raghavendran, who holds three Penn levels, together with from Wharton, was named following the resignation of Scott L. Bok, an ally of Ms. Magill. Mr. Raghavendran’s choice to guide the board was seen as a hopeful signal by some college members, who cited his assist for Penn’s liberal arts school, the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, the place he has served on the advisory board.

Dr. Harun Kucuk, an affiliate professor of historical past and sociology of science, stated professors could possibly be poised for much more activism. The A.A.U.P., the professor’s group, stated its membership numbers are rising on Penn’s campus.

Dr. Kucuk resigned lately as director of the college’s Center East Heart to protest the college’s try to dam the displaying of a movie vital of Israel.

“There’s a window of time to make things right,” he stated, “and I don’t think that’s a year from now.”