All across the country, openly carrying a gun in public is no longer just an exercise in self-defense — increasingly it is a soapbox for elevating one’s voice and, just as often, quieting someone else’s.

Phoenix elections center protesters armed with baseless accusations hurled at the centre by armed protestors this month the Election for Governor was stolen the Republican, Kari lake. Proud Boys with guns in October joined a rally Nashville, where conservative legislators spoke out against transgender medical treatment for minors.

In June, there were armed demonstrations all around the Nearly one American per day was the average. A group headed by a former Republican state legislator protested a gay pride event in a public park in Coeur d’Alene, Idaho. Men with guns Franklin, Tenn. – A group of white men disrupted a Juneteenth celebration, handing out flyers claiming that white people were being replaced. Among the Others were at rallies to support gun rights in Delaware, and abortion rights for Georgia.

It doesn’t matter if you are at the These incidents are usually at the Republican-held areas that have been expanded, whether it’s in a local library, a park, or Main Street. the A recent law allows people to openly carry guns in public. This movement was strengthened by a recent Supreme Court ruling On the You are allowed to carry firearms in public the home. As violent rhetoric rises, the loosening of boundaries has taken place. the Police in some areas fear bloodshed from an armed populace triggered by a hair trigger.

But the There have been mixed results from more guns in public areas. A partisan divide — with Democrats largely eschewing firearms and Republicans embracing them — has warped civic discourse. Deploying the Second Amendment to the service of the First has been used to support a policy argument. It is a silent bullhorn, even intimidating.

“It’s disappointing we’ve gotten to that state in our country,” Kevin Thompson, executive Director of the Museum of Science & History in Memphis, Tenn., where armed protesters led to the Cancellation of L.G.B.T.Q. September. “What I saw was a group of folks who did not want to engage in any sort of dialogue and just wanted to impose their belief.”

An analysis by the New York Times of over 700 armed protests revealed that about 77 percent of them had people openly carrying guns. This was in opposition to L.G.B.T.Q., according to the Times. rights and abortion access, hostility to racial justice rallies and support for former President Donald J. Trump’s lie of winning the 2020 election.

The records are from January 2020 through last week and were compile by the Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project, a nonprofit that tracks political violence around the world. The Times interviewed witnesses to smaller scale incidents that were not captured. the Data, including encounters at indoor public meetings with armed persons.

Right-wing culture warriors and anti-government militias are examples the Proud Boys attended the majority of the protests, the According to data. Violence broke out at more that 100 events. There were often fisticuffs between opposing groups, like antifa.

Republican politicians are more open to openly arming supporters than Democrats, who are more likely be on. the Opposition to people with guns the records suggest. For example, in July, men were at their highest wearing sidearms confronted Beto O’Rourke, then the Democratic candidate for Texas governor was warned at Whitesboro campaign stop that he wasn’t “not welcome in this town.”

Republican candidates or officials were present at 32 protests. the the same side as those who have guns. Only two protests were attended by Democratic politicians. the Similar view to those armed.

Sometimes, the Republican officials carried guns: Robert Sutherland was a Washington state representative who wore a pistol. pistol on his hip While protesting Covid-19 restrictions at Olympia 2020 “Governor,” He spoke to a large crowd. “you send men with guns after us for going fishing. We’ll see what a revolution looks like.”

Not unusual is the appearance of armed civilians at protests or government functions. In the 1960s, the Black Panthers displayed guns Protesting against police brutality is best done in public. Militia groups sometimes armed rallied against Federal agents were involved in violent standoffs in Ruby Ridge and Waco the 1990s.

But the The number of these incidents rose dramatically in 2020 due to conservative opposition to public health measures. the Coronavirus and its response the Sometimes violent rallies follow. the George Floyd’s murder. Today, some parts of the People with permissive gun laws are not uncommon to be seen with handguns and military-style rifles at protests.

At least 14 of these incidents have been reported in and around Dallas, Phoenix, and surrounding areas since May. F.B.I. field office Condemn the search of Mr. Trump’s home and, elsewhere, in support of abortion rights. In New York and Washington, where gun laws are strict, there were none — even though numerous demonstrations took place during that same period.

Many gun-rights advocates and conservatives envision no limits. Republicans voted no to laws in Colorado and Washington this year that would have prohibited firearms from polling places or government meetings. These bills were indeed passed. the exception.

Democrats’ attempts to impose restrictions in other states have largely failed. Some form of open carry, without a permit, is now legal in 38 statesThe number of people who are eligible for the program is approximately. This figure will likely increase as new legislation is introduced in other areas. Michigan has a Tea Party group. recently advertised The poll-watcher training used a photo showing armed men wearing camouflage. Judges rejected attempts to ban guns at voting locations.

Gun rights advocates claim that banning guns at protests would be a violation of gun rights the It is legal to own firearms in self-defense. Jordan Stein, spokesperson for Gun Owners of America pointed to Kyle Rittenhouse. the In 2009, a teenager was acquitted. the Three people were shot in Kenosha, Wis. during a chaotic demonstration. He had previously walked there. the Streets with a military-style rifle

“At a time when protests often devolve into riots, honest people need a means to protect themselves,” He said.

Stein spoke out beyond self-defense the Freedom of speech the You have the right to possess a gun “bedrock principles” And that “Americans should be able to bear arms while exercising their First Amendment rights, whether that’s going to church or a peaceful assembly.”

Some argue that the corrosive effects of openly carrying firearms in public places, especially when there is not an obvious self-defense reason for doing so, can lead to a loss of control. curtailed Activities, suppressed opinions and public servants who quit because of fear or frustration.

Local election officials in Arizona and Colorado are concerned about armed protesters. requested bulletproofing They are available for appointments.

Adam Searing is a Georgetown University professor and lawyer who helps families get access to healthcare. the Impact on freedom of speech when people opposed to Covid restrictions used guns for their points Disability rights advocates in some states were afraid to show up Mr. Searing said that he supports mask mandates to combat armed opposition. Searing, who teaches public policies at Georgetown University, said.

“What was really disturbing was the guns became kind of a signifier for political reasons,” He said that he added, “It was just about pure intimidation.”

The Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project has been tracking such incidents In the United States the These are the past years. Events captured by the Data are not given ideological labels, but are described and collected from news sources and social media. the Network Contagion Research Institute monitors extremism online.

The Times’s analysis found that the Since 2020, the biggest drivers of armed demonstrations changed. Protesters carrying guns this year are more likely to be motivated either by abortion or L.G.B.T.Q. issues. Sam Jones, a spokesperson the Nonpartisan data group, stated that upticks in armed incidents These tend to correspond to “different flash-point events and time periods, like the Roe v. Wade decision and Pride Month.”

About a quarter the In some cases, left-wing activists were also armed. It was sometimes a reaction to right-wing intimidation, they claimed. It was sometimes not. For example, when around 40 demonstrators were armed with rifles. blocked city officials Clearing a homeless camp in July in Dallas

More than half the armed protests took place in 10 states that have expansive open-carry laws. These include Arizona, Georgia and Kentucky. Three of them — Michigan, Oregon and Texas — allowed armed protesters to gather outside capitol buildings ahead of President Biden’s inauguration, and in Michigan, militia members carrying assault rifles were permitted inside the protests against Covid lockdowns at capitol

Beyond the Everyday episodes of armed intimidation are common in mass gatherings. Kimber Glidden had been director of the Boundary County Library, Northern Idaho was closed for a few months after parents raised concerns about inappropriate books for their children in February.

It didn’t matter. the library did not have most of those books — largely dealing with gender, sexuality and race — or that those it did have were not in the children’s section. The issue became a cause célèbre for conservative activists, some of whom began showing up with guns to increasingly tense public meetings, Ms. Glidden said.

“How do you stand there and tell me you want to protect children when you’re in the children’s section of the library and you’re armed?” She asked.

She will be available for purchase in August resignedDecrying the “intimidation tactics and threatening behavior.”

At Outside, a Second Amendment rally will be held in June 2021 the Harrisburg, Pa. statehouse, where some were armed, Republican speakers frequently connected the It is legal to carry a gun on cultural or social issues. Scott Perry made a common conservative complaint about censorship. the The First Amendment was “under assault.”

“And you know very well what protects the First,” He said. “Which is what we’re doing here today.”

Stephanie Borowicz was a state legislator who was blunter. boasting to the crowd That “tyrannical governors” Coronavirus restrictions were lifted because of this. “as long as we’re an armed population, the government fears us.”

Pennsylvania is like many other states with permissive open gun laws has right-wing militias. They sometimes go public with guns. Republican politicians are usually open to them, or at the very least, they accept them.

Jeff Neff, a Republican Borough Council President, was among the dozen militia members who joined a protest in Pittsburgh against Covid restrictions in April 2020. Some were wearing skull masks or body armor. the state senator, posed for a photo With the group. It shows him holding his campaign banner, flanked by military-style riflemen.

In an email, Mr. Neff explained that he had since quit politics, and expressed regret at the news coverage. the photo, adding, “Please know that I do not condone any threats or action of violence by any person or groups.”

All across the Evidence is mounting that Republicans are becoming more involved in militias. A member list the Last year’s public announcement about Oath Keepers included 81 elected officials or candidatesAccording to a report from the Anti-Defamation League. They appear to be mostly Republicans.

Another national militia the American Patriots Three Percent told potential members recently that it was able to support “individuals seeking election to local G.O.P. boards,” According to archived version You can visit its website.

More than 25 members the Oath keepers and Three Percenters were charged. the Jan. 6 attack on the U.S. Capitol. These organizations, together with the Boogaloo Boys and proud boys, they make up the Large number of organised groups in the armed-protest data, according to The Times’s analysis.

Shootings were rare. One example is when a Proud Boy shot in the Foot while following antifa members during a protest Over Covid lockdowns at Olympia last year. Jones disagreed. the Data also showed that unarmed protests were less than 2 percent. the They were responsible for 10% of violence cases, with the majority involving fights between rival factions.

“Armed groups or individuals might say they have no intention of intimidating anyone and are only participating in demonstrations to keep the peace,” “Said Mr. Jones “but the evidence doesn’t back up the claim.”

District of Columbia v. Heller (2008) was a landmark decision. the Supreme Court ruled that the Second Amendment conferred a fundamental right to carry arms for lawful purposes like self-defense at home. It was expanded further in the a decision this June New York’s restrictions on concealed pistol permits were repealed. This allowed firearms to be carried in public.

But the Heller Court also stated that gun rights are protected not unlimitedIt was not invalidated by laws prohibiting it. “the carrying of firearms in sensitive places.” This caveat was reiterated by a concurring opinion. the New York case.

Even gun rights supporters who are hardliners may be uncomfortable with people being armed at protests. Alan Gottlieb is the founder of the Second Amendment Foundation told The Washington Times In 2017, that “if you are carrying it to make a political point, we are not going to support that.”

“Firearms serve a purpose,” He said: “and the purpose is not a mouthpiece.”

Groups that support Second Amendment absolutism aren’t afraid to criticize others who don’t follow that orthodoxy.

Dan Crenshaw, a Republican congressman in Texas who was formerly a Navy SEAL, lamented that 2020 would be his last. “guys dressing up in their Call of Duty outfits, marching through the streets,” They were not moving the He was arrested for violating gun rights. the Coalition for Firearms Policy “being critical of people exercising their right to protest.” The coalition has opposed state laws that force gun owners to make choices between two options. the Rechte to freedom speech and self defense

It doesn’t matter if you have the right to carry out self-defense in public. Early laws and court rulings made it clear. the The Constitution doesn’t allow people to protest with guns, as the modern-day militias do, according to Michael C. Dorf, Cornell University constitutional law professor. written about the Tension between the Rights to freedom of speech and guns

Mr. Dorf mentioned a Pennsylvania Supreme Court 18th century ruling that said a group of protesters who were carrying guns had no right to demonstrate in public against a tax. An old English law also prohibited some states from adopting it. “going armed to the terror of the people,” still on the books In some cases, these are aimed at preventing the Threatening or intimidating others with weapons

“Historically,” Mr. Dorf “there were such limits on armed gatherings, even assuming that there’s some right to be armed as individuals.”

Further, there is no evidence to suggest that the Framers the Constitution intended for Americans to take up arms during civic debate among themselves — or to intimidate those with differing opinions. This is what happened at the Memphis museum in September people with guns protested a scheduled dance party which closed off a long summer series the History of the L.G.B.T.Q. Community in the South.

While the The party was advertised as “family friendly,” Conservatives on local talk radio said that children were at risk.the Museum the Planned activities were acceptable for all age groups. Outside, armed men in masks mingled with each other. the Panicked staff cancelled all programs and evacuated the premises.

Mr. Thompson, the director, stated that he was currently negotiating with his board. the State legislators have relaxed firearms laws last year.

“It’s a different time,” He said: “and it’s something we have to learn to navigate.”

Allie Pitchon contributed reporting.