He said also that the election results would boost his standing in the highly anticipated meeting with President Xi Jinping of China before the Group of 20 summit in Bali. “I know I’m coming in stronger, but I don’t need that,” Mr. Biden said.

Although House Republicans did present a platform to govern during the campaign, it was rather vague. Most Republican candidates focused on criticizing Mr. Biden, Democrats, and not talking about inflation, crime or other pressing issues. Republicans had to deal with Trump’s plans to declare his candidacy for the presidency in 2024 and to divvy up the party.

For Democrats, identifying issues has never been more difficult than prioritizing them. In fact, in the days leading to the election, Mr. Biden, along with fellow Democrats, struggled to decide whether to address voter worries about inflation and the economic outlook or to highlight the threat to abortion rights, and even democracy itself.

The Senate result was the culmination of an intense, final-days campaign push that sought to recast the election on more favorable terms to Democrats — yielding an outcome that has already surpassed many Democrats’ best expectations.

Mr. Biden was plagued by low approval ratings throughout the campaign season and faced a Republican Party that wanted to turn the midterms into a referendum on his leadership. He did not request to stump for Democratic incumbents or candidates in purple states. For example, he never campaigned alongside Ms. Cortez Mato or Senator Mark Kelly of Arizona who won a narrow race.

According to The New York Times, his aides devised a strategy that would highlight his achievements with former presidents at this stage in their presidencies. They also wanted to contrast Democratic legislative accomplishments with Republicans. They wanted to prove that Mr. Biden is a campaigner, despite not receiving many campaign requests.

To boost Ms. Kotek (the Democratic nominee for governor), the president traveled to safer territory, including Oregon. Mr. Biden’s schedule picked up in the final weeks, including a cross-country sprint in the last days of the race that took him to New Mexico, California, Illinois, Pennsylvania and New York.