SHARM EL SHEIKH, Egypt — The United Nations climate talks spilled into overtime on Friday, as negotiators from nearly 200 countries struggled to agree on the summit’s most contentious issue — whether wealthy, industrialized nations should create a new fund to pay poor countries for “loss and damage” Global warming is a major cause.

The United States, historically the world’s biggest polluter, has resisted the idea of compensation for climate-related disasters, fearing it could face unlimited liability. After the European Union, the United States was increasingly isolated. and A vocal group of developing nations had supported different plans to create a new fund as soon as this year.

John Kerry, President Biden’s special envoy for climate change, spent Friday out of the public eye, and The State Department has not commented publicly on the new proposals.

“The U.S. is a key obstacle,” Susana Muhamad, Colombia’s environment minister, said. Without American support, “the conversation here cannot evolve,” She said. “It is taking up all the air at the conference.”

Even though the United States passed landmark clean energy legislation in this year’s United States and To reaffirm America’s leadership in combating climate change and the loss debate, Mr. Biden attended the summit and It has been a difficult experience for many. and You can’t put Mr. Kerry in a corner.

A poor track record is part of the problem. The United States and Other wealthy countries failed to fulfill a decade-old promise of $100 billion per year to aid poorer nations in the transition to clean energy. and Climate hazards can be managed and angry leaders from developing countries are staking the summit’s success on the thorny issue of money.

“Clearly trust levels are low,” Nigel Topping, who was appointed in Britain by the British and The United States Nations You can also use it as a “high-level champion” to assist in the facilitation of climate talks. He said that if nations cannot agree on a form of climate financing, they can negotiate. “there will be a lot of angry responses from the most vulnerable.”

The other key sticking points were whether to call worldwide “phase-down” All fossil fuels are dangerously heating the earth. There were also disputes over which countries should do more to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and rules for carbon offsets, which are a fast-growing global market.

The two-week summit was scheduled to conclude on Friday. Staff members at this Red Sea resort town’s convention center began to remove coffee machines and dismantling climate-themed exhibits. Negotiators were bleary-eyed as they feared that talks would drag on into the weekend with some delegations worried about changing flight schedules. and Extend hotel reservations

Each agreement must be approved by representatives from almost 200 nations. A disagreement can lead to the collapse of an entire deal.

“Time is not on our side,” said Sameh Shoukry, Egypt’s foreign minister, who is acting as the conference’s convener and Negotiations should be managed to a successful conclusion.

A draft agreement Friday’s announcement indicated that countries may find common ground. It called on nations to limit global average temperatures rising above 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 degrees Fahrenheit), which is the preindustrial level. That’s the threshold beyond which scientists say the likelihood of catastrophic climate effects significantly increases. Some countries were concerned that the summit might abandon this target earlier in the week.

But regarding loss and damage, the summit’s most contentious issue, talks remained deadlocked.

Despite having done little to create the crisis, scores of developing countries are vulnerable to irreversible climate change damage. Some estimates suggest that the damage could reach $580 billion annually by 2030. and $1.75 trillion by 2050 These leaders say it is only fair to provide financial assistance to wealthy countries, which have pumped most the planet-warming greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere.

The formal agenda included the topic of climate compensation for the first time at the summit. and negotiators from almost every country — some continent-size, others tiny islands, some fabulously wealthy, others deeply impoverished — have sparred over several options. These options included agreeing to work with existing institutions such as the World Bank and the Green on climate aid for developing nations. Climate Fund.

A group of 77 developing nations demanded that a fund be created before next year’s summit to provide aid to a range of developing countries. It would be provided by industrialized nations like the United States, Europe and Japan. and Canada, with details to be worked out at future summits.

“We are very clear that we see this as a climate justice issue,” Sherry Rehman, Pakistan’s minister for climate change, said.

Pakistan faces more than $30 billion in damage as a result this summer’s catastrophic floods that left one third of the country underwater. and It has impacted more than 33,000,000 people. “These are huge sums for countries that are drowning in debt and climate-driven floods and catastrophes,” She said.

Thursday night saw the European Union offer an alternative plan for establishing a fund in the coming year. It would be geared towards providing assistance to the most vulnerable countries such as the low-lying countries of Africa or the poorest countries in Africa.

It would not only draw contributions from the United States, but also other countries. and Europe, but not other large emitters like China and Saudi Arabia was classified as “developing” Since 1992, emissions have exploded since the U.N. climate treaty was adopted. and wealth. China is currently the world’s biggest emitter of greenhouse gases and possesses the second-largest economy.

“Some countries that at the time were considered developing are now part of the top economic performers in the world,” Frans Timmermans, lead negotiator, stated. He stated: “it’s only fair” The wealthy 20-country Group makes contributions.

A number of European countries have already pledged more than $300 Million to reduce loss. and Most of the money will go towards a new insurance program that will help countries recover from natural disasters such as flooding. The efforts of the poorer countries were appreciated, but only a small fraction of what is required.

China has indicated that it may be open to making voluntary losses contributions and damage. One of its delegates, however, insisted on Thursday that it was time to stop. “not the time to rewrite” the 1992 climate treaty — a sign that the country was hesitant to be required to provide climate funding.

Kerry declared last week that the United States has recognized his statement “the responsibility” to channel more money to countries experiencing climate disasters. Kerry stated that he was committed to finding ways to provide funding for countries in need. He has not indicated that he is willing to support vague proposals. “financial arrangements” and This has led to concerns about the creation of a fund, as well as further discussion about details about how it would work. Practical implications and Legal matters are extremely complicated. It would be difficult to figure out who owes which. and To whom?

“Not a lot of people I know want to sign off on something that’s not even fully defined,” Kerry spoke.

The talks are occurring during simultaneous crises. Worries that countries will backslide on plans to reduce their use of fossil fuels have shadowed the summit, largely because of a global energy crisis precipitated by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine that forced some countries to seek out coal and There are other options to Russian gas. Around the world, inflation rates are on the rise. A warming planet has intensified the danger of floods in countries like Pakistan and Nigerian heat records also broken and Drought in Europe and Asia and Africa has pushed millions to the brink famine.

There are also some recent shining moments. Climate Talks between the United States and China, which Beijing had suspended in August, has now started over. Last week, leaders of 20 major economies reaffirmed their support for keeping global temperatures rising below 1.5 degrees Celsius.

The most poignant moment in Friday’s negotiations occurred when a 10-year-old Ghanaian girl named Nakeeyat Dramani took the floor at the conference’s large plenary hall.

As a representative from a group of fragile countries, she pointed out that Kerry was one of the world’s most powerful leaders. “have been really nice to me.”

But kindness wouldn’t solve the math of climate change, she said, and Industrialized countries owe more to countries such as Ghana for every tonne of greenhouse gas emissions than countries like Ghana, which have contributed little.

“When can you pay us back?” She asked. “Because payment is overdue.”