At New York College, the police swept in to arrest protesting college students on Monday evening, ending a standoff with the varsity’s administration.

At Yale, the police positioned protesters’ wrists into zip ties on Monday morning and escorted them onto campus shuttles to obtain summonses for trespassing.

Columbia stored its classroom doorways closed on Monday, shifting lectures on-line and urging college students to remain house.

Harvard Yard was shut to the general public. Close by, at campuses like Tufts and Emerson, directors weighed the right way to deal with encampments that appeared very similar to the one which the police dismantled at Columbia final week — which protesters rapidly resurrected. And on the West Coast, a brand new encampment bubbled on the College of California, Berkeley.

Lower than per week after the arrests of greater than 100 protesters at Columbia, directors at a few of the nation’s most influential universities had been struggling, and largely failing, to calm campuses torn by the battle in Gaza and Israel.

Through the turmoil on Monday, which coincided with the beginning of Passover, protesters known as on their universities to develop into much less financially tied to Israel and its arms suppliers. Many Jewish college students agonized anew over some protests and chants that veered into antisemitism, and feared once more for his or her security. Some college members denounced clampdowns on peaceable protests and warned that academia’s mission to advertise open debate felt imperiled. Alumni and donors raged.

And from Congress, there have been requires the resignation of Columbia’s president, Nemat Shafik, from a few of the identical lawmakers Dr. Shafik tried to pacify final week with phrases and ways that infected her personal campus.

The menu of choices for directors dealing with protests appears to be rapidly dwindling. It’s all however sure that the demonstrations, in some type or one other, will final on some campuses till the tip of the educational yr, and even then, commencement ceremonies could also be bitterly contested gatherings.

For now, with essentially the most important protests confined to a handful of campuses, the directors’ approaches typically appear to shift from hour to hour.

“I know that there is much debate about whether or not we should use the police on campus, and I am happy to engage in those discussions,” Dr. Shafik mentioned in a message to college students and staff early Monday, 4 days after officers wearing riot gear helped clear a part of Columbia’s campus.

“But I do know that better adherence to our rules and effective enforcement mechanisms would obviate the need for relying on anyone else to keep our community safe,” she added. “We should be able to do this ourselves.”

Protesters have demonstrated with various depth for the reason that Oct. 7 Hamas assault on Israel. However this explicit spherical of unrest started to assemble higher pressure final Wednesday, after Columbia college students erected an encampment, simply as Dr. Shafik was making ready to testify earlier than Congress.

At that listening to in Washington, earlier than a Republican-led Home committee, she vowed to punish unauthorized protests on the personal college’s campus extra aggressively, and the following day, she requested the New York Police Division to clear the encampment. Along with the greater than 100 individuals arrested, Columbia suspended many college students. Many Columbia professors, college students and alumni voiced fears that the college was stamping out free debate, a cornerstone of the American school expertise.

The harsher method helped result in extra protests exterior Columbia’s gates, the place Jewish college students reported being focused with antisemitic jeers and described feeling unsafe as they traveled to and from their campus.

The spiraling uproar in Higher Manhattan helped gasoline protests on another campuses.

“We’re all a united front,” mentioned Malak Afaneh, a regulation scholar protesting at College of California, Berkeley. “This was inspired by the students at Columbia who, in my opinion, are the heart of the student movement whose bravery and solidarity with Palestine really inspired us all.”

The occasions at Columbia additionally rippled to Yale, the place college students gathered at Beinecke Plaza in New Haven, Conn., for days to demand that the college divest from arms producers.

Yale’s president, Peter Salovey, mentioned Monday that college leaders had spent “many hours” in talks with the protesters, with a suggestion that included an viewers with the trustee who oversees Yale’s Company Committee on Investor Accountability. However college officers had determined late Sunday that the talks had been proving unsuccessful, and Dr. Salovey mentioned, they had been troubled by studies “that the campus environment had become increasingly difficult.”

The authorities arrested 60 individuals on Monday morning, together with 47 college students, Dr. Salovey mentioned. The college mentioned the choice to make arrests was made with “the safety and security of the entire Yale community in mind and to allow access to university facilities by all members of our community.”

Within the hours after the arrests, although, a whole bunch of protesters blocked an important intersection in New Haven.

“We demand that Yale divests!” went one chant.

“Free Palestine!” went one other.

Removed from being cowed by the police, protesters advised that the response at Beinecke Plaza had emboldened them.

“It’s pretty appalling that the reaction to students exercising their freedom of speech and engaging in peaceful protest on campus grounds — which is supposed to be our community, our campus — the way that Yale responds is by sending in the cops and having 50 students arrested,” mentioned Chisato Kimura, a regulation scholar at Yale.

The scene was much less contentious in Massachusetts, the place Harvard officers had moved to restrict the opportunity of protests by closing Harvard Yard, the 25-acre core of the campus in Cambridge, by means of Friday. College students had been warned that they may face college self-discipline in the event that they, for example, erected unauthorized tents or blocked constructing entrances.

On Monday, Harvard’s Palestine Solidarity Committee mentioned on social media that the college had suspended it. Nationwide College students for Justice in Palestine, a unfastened confederation of campus teams, mentioned it believed the choice was “clearly intended to prevent students from replicating the solidarity encampments” rising throughout america. Harvard mentioned in an announcement that it was “committed to applying all policies in a content-neutral manner.”

Elsewhere within the Boston space, protesters had arrange encampments at Emerson School, the Massachusetts Institute of Know-how and Tufts College. However these protests, for now, appeared extra modest than those at Yale and in New York, the place demonstrators constructed an encampment exterior N.Y.U.’s Stern College of Enterprise.

N.Y.U. officers tolerated the demonstration for hours however signaled Monday evening that their endurance was sporting skinny. Cops gathered close to the protest web site as demonstrators ignored a 4 p.m. deadline to vacate it. As dusk approached, sirens blared and officers, donning helmets and bearing zip ties, mustered. Prisoner transport vans waited close by.

“Students, students, hold your ground!” protesters roared. “N.Y.U., back down!”

Quickly sufficient, cops marched on the demonstration.

“Today’s events did not need to lead to this outcome,” mentioned John Beckman, a college spokesman in a statement. However, he mentioned, some protesters, who could not have been from N.Y.U., breached boundaries and refused to go away. Due to security issues, the college mentioned it requested for help from the police.

At Columbia, Dr. Shafik ordered Monday’s lessons moved on-line “to de-escalate the rancor.”

She didn’t instantly element how the college would proceed within the coming days, past saying that Columbia officers can be “continuing discussions with the student protesters and identifying actions we can take as a community to enable us to peacefully complete the term.”

Some college students and school members mentioned help for Dr. Shafik was eroding, with the college senate making ready for the opportunity of a vote this week to censure the president. Supporters of the censure complained that Dr. Shafik was sacrificing educational freedom to appease critics.

However Dr. Shafik was castigated on Monday by the very individuals she was accused of appeasing when at the very least 10 members of the U.S. Home of Representatives demanded her resignation.

“Over the past few days, anarchy has engulfed Columbia University,” Consultant Elise Stefanik, Republican of New York and one among Dr. Shafik’s chief interrogators final week, wrote with different lawmakers. “As the leader of this institution, one of your chief objectives, morally and under law, is to ensure students have a safe learning environment. By every measure, you have failed this obligation.”

A college spokesperson mentioned that Dr. Shafik was targeted on easing the strife and that she was “working across campus with members of the faculty, administration, and board of trustees, and with state, city, and community leaders, and appreciates their support.”

Amid the acrimony, and with scores of inexperienced, blue and yellow tents filling the Columbia encampment, components of the campus typically took on an eerie, surreal quiet on a splendid spring day.

The unease was by no means all that far-off, although, even with many Jewish college students away from campus for Passover.

“When Jewish students are forced to watch others burning Israeli flags, calling for bombing of Tel Aviv, calling for Oct. 7 to happen over and over again, it creates an unacceptable degree of fear that cannot be tolerated,” Consultant Daniel Goldman, Democrat of New York, mentioned exterior Columbia’s Robert Ok. Kraft Middle for Jewish Pupil Life.

By then, in one other image of the disaster enveloping Columbia, Mr. Kraft, an alumnus and proprietor of the New England Patriots, had launched his personal broadside and advised he would pause his giving.

“I am no longer confident that Columbia can protect its students and staff,” he wrote in an announcement, “and I am not comfortable supporting the university until corrective action is taken.”

Reporting was contributed by Kaja Andric, Olivia Bensimon, Troy Closson, Maria Cramer, Liset Cruz, Jacey Fortin, Amanda Holpuch, Eliza Fawcett, Sarah Maslin Nir, Sarah Mervosh, Coral Murphy Marcos, Sharon Otterman, Wesley Parnell, Jeremy W. Peters, Karla Marie Sanford, Stephanie Saul and Derrick Bryson Taylor.